This 8-line summary of textbook physics agrees with 400 years of experiments.

8 lines state that general relativity and the standard model of particle physics describe all of nature. The free physics volume telling more about each line is linked.



No known observation contradicts these eight lines.

The eight lines determine all equations of physics:

Lines 1, 2 and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations. References below.

Lines 1, 2 and 4 to 8, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory and the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics, with massive neutrinos.

The eight lines contain physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy, engineering and computer science.

The eight lines resulted from the work of millions of scientists and engineers.

Galileo started around the year 1600. Line 5 arose around 1860, lines 2 and 4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 6, 7 and 8 from 1936 to 1973.

The eight lines contain all present knowledge about nature. They summarize and contain all textbook physics.



Three questions are open in fundamental physics.

III    Are all observations in nature described by the 8 lines – or are there phenomena beyond them, i.e., beyond present textbook physics?

For example, to which line do dark matter and dark energy belong exactly?

III    What is the common explanation for the 8 lines – or is there none?c4

In particular, what determines lines 5 to 8, i.e., the force spectrum, the particle spectrum and the fundamental constants?c4
Lines 5 to 8 contain the only known physics effects unexplained by and thus beyond the standard model.

III    Are there any undiscovered lines – or will  F ≤ c4/4G  remain the last law of physics?

Explored mainly in the years from 1993 to 2002, the force limit is, arguably, the last law of physics discovered so far. The limit value c4/4G ≈ 3.0 · 1043 N for the local force has passed all checks. It allows deducing Einstein's field equations and is the shortest known summary of general relativity.c4

Enjoy searching for answers.



The main references about maximum force follow – because line 3 was the last one to be added to the 8 lines.

V. de Sabbata & C. Sivaram, On limiting field strengths in gravitation, Found. Phys. Lett. 6, 561-570 (1993).

L. Kostro & B. Lange, Is c4/G the greatest possible force in nature?, Phys. Essays 12, 182-189 (1999).

G.W. Gibbons, The maximum tension principle in general relativity, Found. Phys. 32, 1891-1901 (2002).

C. Schiller, General relativity and cosmology derived from principle of maximum power or force, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 44, 1629-1647 (2005).

M.P. Dabrowski & H. Gohar, Abolishing the maximum tension principle, Phys. Lett. B 748, 428-431 (2015). The paper shows that in other models of gravity, the maximum force does not hold.

Numerous additional papers have treated the topic of maximum force, mostly confirming it. The latest attempts to construct counter-examples were published by V. Faraoni, Phys. Rev. D 103, 124010 (2021) and by A. Jowsey & M. Visser, arXiv:2102.01831. However, because these publications added forces acting at different locations in space, the counter-examples turn out to be only apparent. A detailed exploration shows that, in the claimed configurations of those papers, local maximum force is never exceeded, as explained in C. Schiller, Comment on "Maximum force and cosmic censorship", Physical Review D 104 (2021) 068501 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.068501, free preprint here.


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